Indigo Assessment Validity, Reliability, and Research

The Indigo Assessment is scientifically validated with decades of research behind it at Target Training International. The following articles discuss the concepts and peer reviewed research on the science behind our Indigo Assessment.

“What Can DISC and Motivation Profiles Disclose About Student Retention in Engineering?”

Indigo teamed up with the University of Denver to assess engineering students’ Indigo results over three years. The results indicated trends that could potentially aid in future mentoring of students in the engineering department.



"What Can DISC and Motivation Profiles Disclose About Student Retention in Engineering?"

Indigo Project teamed up with the engineering departments of University of Denver to observe patterns in the DISC and Motivator traits of students through three years in the engineering program.

"Ending the Average in Education"

By Indigo's CEO Sheri A. Smith, M.A. This study describes the importance of student individuality and explores the idea of average outlined in Todd Rose's The End of Average. 


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Entrepreneurship Algorithm Study

Target Training International's (TTI) researcher, Dr. Eric Gehrig, statistically validated Indigo's entrepreneurship algorithm for identifying students who are high potential entrepreneurs.  This paper opens up opportunities for larger government funded research through organizations like the NSF.  

Why We’re Different

Assessment validity, reliability, measurement variables, competitor landscape, customers and partners.


TTI Technical Report

Our technology partner, Target Training International, created this technical report describing in depth the science behind the Indigo Assessment.

Peer Reviewed Research based on TTI's Technology behind Indigo


Freshman Engineering Student Personal Attribute Workshop Findings: A Retention Issue 

This report compares the behaviors and values of 478 Fall 2007 UNL Freshmen Engineering students against first semester GPA. The data suggests that High Influencing and Low Compliance scores are indicators of lower GPA.


Application of business-oriented assessment to improve coach and player interactions: A case study

This paper discusses the application of Indigo Assessment components to coaching and player success in a team environment.


Lowering the walls and crossing boundaries: applications of experiential learning to teaching collaboration

One of the biggest challenges in higher education is preparing today’s students for future workforce demands. UNL Environmental Studies program partnered with Target Training International Ltd. (TTI) to create a course for students to gain insight into the effect of self-awareness on team building (n = 47 students). 


Determining Personal Talents and Behavioral Styles of Applicants to Surgical Training: A New Look at an Old Problem, Part I

This article discusses matching residents to surgical programs using TTI's assessment tools.


Determining Personal Talents and Behavioral Styles of Applicants to Surgical Training: A New Look at an Old Problem, Part II

Using TTI instrumentation, a mathematical model of axiological science was employed to surgical residents in order to maximize surgical training techniques.  The TTI assessment outlined behaviors, motivators, and skills that were needed to develop a surgical resident in their career.


A Triad of Disposition Instruments Used in Secondary Science Education to Help Teachers Better Understand Self and Others

This is a study of over 350 science education pre-service teachers, gathered over a 19-year period.  Behaviors, motivators, and soft skills were all assessed. The behavioral data suggests that most of the students who have traditionally trained to teach within this program possess attributes that make them slow to change and even slower to lead a reform effort. Educational mediocrity may have accumulated in schools from failure to balance teachers who value maintaining traditions with teachers who procreate change.


Mapping the Behaviors, Motives and Professional Competencies of Entrepreneurially Minded Engineers in Theory and Practice: An Empirical Investigation

The Kern Entrepreneurship Education Network (KEEN) encompasses nineteen private engineering schools across the US.  KEEN partnered with Target Training International (TTI) to assess what behaviors, motivators, and skills generate an entrepreneurial line of thinking, and tracked these variables in students’ education.  


Creating, Educating and Assessing a New Class of Entrepreneurial Minded Engineers

The Kern Entrepreneurship Education Network (KEEN) partnered with TTI to develop the KEEN–TTI Performance DNA Assessment Project to test skills, behaviors and motivators in students.  The results of this assessment are used to advance entrepreneurial mindsets of engineering undergrads and to increase applications of engineering studies.


How do online course design features influence student performance?

The design of an online course can change the effectiveness of learning.  This report looks into four different instructional features that may impact students' ability to absorb the content.   

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2017 Style & Motivation Insights Reliability Study

This study confirms the Style & Motivation Insights assessments as internally consistent and reliable.


Predicting Academic Performance in Surgical Training

This paper uses TTI’s assessment tools to determine if it is possible to identify students at risk of substandard performance using behaviors and motivators, to allow for proactive steps to give students a greater opportunity for success.

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Exploring Non-Cognitive Reasons behind Success after Failure

This study explored the correlation between soft skills as measured by Indigo and the likelihood of a student passing a course or passing after failing the same course.


A Pilot Study of Potential Future Entrepreneurs

This paper explores the data generated by the Indigo Project to identify potential future entrepreneurs.

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A Leadership Profile of Entrepreneurs Across the Generations: An Exploratory Study

TTI TriMetrix® DNA talent survey data were used to identify behavior, attitudes, and professional skills of entrepreneurs.


TTI SI Style Insights® v Big 5 Personality Inventory: University Students Validation Study

This study compares the TTI Success Insights Style Insights® behavior assessment with the Big Five Personality Inventory in a population of US university students.

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TTI SI Style Insights® v Big 5 Personality Inventory: A Validation Comparison Study

This study shows correlations between the D, I, S, and C constructs of the TTI Success Insights assessments and the O, C, E, A, and N constructs of the Big Five assessments.